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6 Factors that Could Affect Your Auto Insurance Premium

When it comes to car insurance, many consumers have no idea what insurers look at to come up with the almighty premium amount. But believe it or not, insurers don’t pull your auto insurance rates out of thin air.

To help you secure the lowest possible insurance rate, it’s important to learn about the factors that could be affecting your premium–and how to use those factors to tip the scale in your favor!

Factor #1: Your Driving Record

It’s probably no surprise to you that insurers look at your driving record. They do so to gauge or estimate the risk to insure you. But what exactly are they looking for? Insurers will scan your driving record for at-fault accidents, traffic violations and claims made, usually within the last three to five years. If you’ve received marks against your driving record, you can bet you’ll be paying more for your auto insurance.

The good news: Marks against your driving record usually fall away in the eyes of your insurer after three years. You can avoid being penalized for a less than stellar driving record by driving as defensively as possible and avoiding filing small claims (such as those for hail damage) and paying for the repairs yourself.

Factor #2: Previous Insurance Coverage

If you’re applying for car insurance under a new insurer, your prospective agent will almost certainly look into your previous insurance coverage. He or she will want to know if you paid your premiums on time, how many claims you filed with your old insurer, as well as any other problematic behavior that would increase your risk to insure.

Any red flags in previous insurance coverage will likely result in an increased insurance rate. And unfortunately, if you’ve not been previously insured, you may pay more car insurance until you establish an insurance history.

The good news: You can avoid these penalties in the future by paying your premiums on time, avoiding filing small claims and maintaining a respectful relationship with your insurers.

Factor #3: Your Credit History

According to a recent study by insurance research firm Conning and Company, 92 percent of the nation’s 100 top insurers are factoring credit history into auto insurance premiums.

And while insurers are looking directly at credit scores, they’re more interested at how you’ve used your credit in the past. Insurers will look at the length of your credit history, the amount of revolving debt you have and any collections or late payments to form an insurance score.

And while critics and consumers alike accuse insurers of using credit-based scoring as an excuse to inflate auto rates, there’s a surprising amount of statistics to back the use of insurance scoring. In fact, studies have found that consumers at the bottom of the credit pool file 40 percent more claims that consumers with good credit. Insurers also use your credit history to judge the likelihood of paying your premiums on time. It’s for these and other reasons that insurance scoring is most likely here to stay.

The good news: You can improve your insurance score by paying your bills on time, paying down high existing balances (such as those on credit cards), and having your car insurance premium automatically withdrawn from your account every month.

Bonus tip: Insurers tend to grant discounts for customers with automatic bill pay!

Factor #4: Geographic Location

Can insurers charge you more because of where you live?

Yes.

Statistically speaking, metropolitan areas see greater incidents of car accidents, theft and vandalism. These factors increase the risk that an insurer takes to cover you. Thus, if you live in the city, you may pay more for car insurance than if you lived in a more rural area or suburb.

The good news: While your premiums may go up in urban areas, you can score discounts if your car is kept under a carport, garage or parking structure. Make sure your agent knows of these safety measures–including any electronic theft deterrents in your car.

Factor #5: The Car in Question

It comes as a surprise to most that a brand new car often costs more to insure than one that’s been around the block a few times.

How is this possible?

With all airbags and anti-theft devices in new cars, you’d think your premium would go down. But the fact of the matter is that newer cars can be more expensive to repair and replace–which will increase the amount you pay to cover the car.

The good news: Don’t discount discounts! If your car has multiple air bags and other safety features, make sure your agent is aware of all of them. And you can avoid premium surprises in the future by getting an estimate on your insurance before buying that luxury coupe.

Factor #6: Use of the Car

Believe it or not, your insurer cares how much you use your car and what you use it for. While this may seem relatively unimportant, to an insurer, the more you’re on the road, the greater your chances of getting into an accident–which translates to an increased risk for the insurer.

The good news: Okay, there’s not much you can do about this one. Living closer to work should save you a couple bucks, but if that’s not an option (and sometimes it isn’t), make up for any rate increase by asking about additional discounts, cash incentives and rebates. Chances are good that your insurer won’t bump your premium up much for this anyway.

An Educated Consumer is a Powerful Consumer!

While the final decision about car insurance rates ultimately lies in the hands of the insurer, using the tips above can help tilt the scales in favor of the consumer.

So get your cheapest car insurance premiums by educating yourself on the factors mentioned above. And remember, different insurers may use these factors in varying fashions–so shop around and obtain multiple quotes to find the cheap auto insurance you need!

 

 

Car Insurance Terms and Glossary

No car insurance resource would be complete without a comprehensive glossary of car insurance terms. We’ve compiled a list of terms and their definitions to better help you navigate the sometimes confusing world of insurance

Accident – This is an unexpected sudden event that causes property damage to an automobile or bodily injury to a person. The event may be an at-fault or not-at fault and it may be report or unreported. An accident involving two vehicles may be termed a collision.

Accident report form – This is the report filed by police, often called the police report, containing the important information regarding the vehicle collision. This report will include the names of all individuals involved, vehicles involved, property damaged and citations that were issued.

Adjuster – This is the person who will evaluate the actual loss reported on the policy after an accident or other incident. They will make the determination on how much will be paid on the auto insurance policy by the Insurer.

Agent – This is a licensed and trained individual who is authorized to sell and to service insurance policies for the auto insurance company.

At Fault – This is the amount that you, the policy holder, contributed or caused the auto collision. This determines which insurance agency pays which portion of the losses.

Auto Insurance Score – This is a score similar to credit score that evaluates the information in your consumer credit report. These scores are used when determining pricing for your auto insurance policy. Negative marks on your credit report can increase your auto insurance premiums. The use of this information to determine policy pricing does vary from state to state.

Automobile Insurance – This is a type of insurance policy that covers and protect against losses involving automobiles. Auto Insurance policies include a wide range of coverage’s depending on the policy holders needs. Liability for property damage and bodily injury, uninsured motorist, medical payments, comprehensive, and collision are some of the common coverage’s offered under an auto insurance policy.

Binder – This is a temporary short-term policy agreement put in place while a formal permanent policy is put into place or delivered.

Bodily Injury Liability – This is the section of an insurance policy that covers the cost to anyone you may injure. It can include lost wages and medical expenses.

Broker – This is a licensed individual who on your behalf sells and services various insurance policies.

Claim – This is a formal notice made to your insurance company that a loss has occurred which may be covered under the terms of the auto insurance policy.

Claims Adjuster – This person employed by the insurance agency will investigate and settle all claims and losses. A representative for the insurance agency to verify and ensure all parties involved with the loss, get compensated fairly and correctly.

Collision – The portion of the insurance policy that covers damage to your vehicle from hitting another object. Objects can include but are not limited to; another vehicle, a building, curbs, guard rail, tree, telephone pole or fence. A deductible will apply. Your insurance company will go after the other parties insurance policy for these cost should they be at fault.

Commission – This is the portion of the auto insurance policy that is paid to the insurance agent for selling and servicing the policy on behalf of the company.

Comprehensive – This is a portion of the insurance policy that covers loss caused by anything other than a collision or running into another object. A deductible will apply. This includes but is not limited to vandalism, storm damage, fire, theft, etc.

Covered loss – This is the damage to yourself, other people or property or your vehicle that is covered under the auto insurance policy.

Declarations Page – This is the part of the insurance policy that includes the entire legal name of your insurance company, your full legal name, complete car information including vehicle identification numbers or VIN, policy information, policy number, deductible amounts. This page is usually the front page of the insurance policy.

Deductible Amount – This is the portion of the auto insurance policy that is the amount the policy holder must pay up front before the Insurance Company contributes and is required to pay any benefits. This amount can be within a wide range in price and varies from approximately $100 – $1000. The larger amount you pay in a deductible the lower your normal monthly/yearly policy will cost. This is the portion of the auto insurance policy that would be applicable only to comprehensive or collision coverage.

Discount – This is a reduction in the overall cost of your insurance policy. Deductions can be given for a variety of different reasons including a good driving record, grades, age, marital status, specific features and safety equipment on the automobile.

Emergency Road Service – This is the part of an auto insurance policy that covers the cost of emergency services such as flat tires, keys locked in the car and towing services.

Endorsement – This is any written change that is made to the auto insurance policy that is adding or removing coverage on the policy.

Exclusion – This is the portion of the auto Insurance policy that includes any provision including people, places or things that are not covered under the insurance policy.

First Party – This is the policyholder, the insured in an insurance policy.

Gap Insurance – This is a type of auto insurance provided to people who lease or own a vehicle that is worth less than the amount of the loan. Gap auto Insurance will cover the amount between the actual cash value of the vehicle and the amount left on loan should the care be stolen or destroyed.

High-Risk Driver – If you have a variety of negative marks on your insurance record including driving under the Influences, several traffic violations, etc. you may be labeled as a risk to the insurance company. This will increase your insurance policy or may make you ineligible for coverage.

Insured – The policyholder (s) who are covered by the policy benefits in case of a loss or accident.

Insurer – Is the Auto Insurance company who promises to pay the policy holder in case of loss or accident.

Liability insurance – This part of an auto insurance policy which legally covers the damage and injuries you cause to other drivers and their vehicles when you are at fault in an accident. If you are sued and taken to court, liability coverage will apply to your legal costs that you incur. Most states will require drivers to carry some variation of liability coverage Insurance and this amount will vary state by state.

Limits – This is the portion of the auto insurance policy that explains and lists the monetary limits the insurance company will pay out. In the situation you reach these limits the policy holder will be responsible for all other expenses.

Medical Payments Coverage – This is the portion of an auto insurance policy that pays for medical expenses and lost wages to you and any passengers in your vehicle after an accident. It is also known as personal injury protection or PIP.

Motor Vehicle Report – The motor vehicle report or MVR is a record issued by the state in which the policy holder resides in that will list the licensing status, any traffic violations, various suspensions and./ or refractions on your record. This is one of the tools used in determining the premium prices offered by the insurance agency. This is also used to determine the probability of you having a claim during your policy period.

No-Fault Insurance – If you reside within a state with no-fault insurance laws and regulations, your auto insurance policy pays for your injuries no matter who caused the accident. No-fault insurance states include; Florida, Hawaii, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Utah and Washington, DC..

Non-Renewal – This is the termination of an auto insurance policy on the given expiration date. All coverage will cease as of this date and insurer will be released of promised coverage.

Personal Property Liability – This is the portion of the auto insurance policy that covers any damage or loss you cause to another person’s personal property.

Personal Injury Protection or PIP – This portion of an auto insurance policy pays for any lost wages or medical expenses to you and any passengers in your vehicle following an accident. PIP is also known as medical payments coverage.

Premium – This is the amount charged to you monthly, yearly or any other duration agreed upon by insurance company and policy holder and paid directly to the auto insurance company. A premium is based on the type and amount of coverage you choose for your vehicle(s) and yourself. Other factors that will affect your insurance premium prices include your age, marital status, you’re driving and credit report, the type of car you drive and whether you live in an urban or rural area. Premiums vary by insurance company and the location you live.

Quotation – This is the amount or estimated amount the insurance will cost based on the information provided to the agent, broker or auto insurance company.

Rescission.- This is the cancellation of the insurance policy dated back to its effective date. This would result in the full premium that was charged being returned.

Rental Reimbursement – This is the portion of the auto insurance policy that covers the cost of an automobile rental of similar size should the covered vehicle be in repair from a reported incident.

Replacement Cost – This is the amount of money it would cost to replace a lost or damaged item at it is actually new replacement value. This monetary amount would be based on a new identical item in the current local market.

Salvage – This is the auto insurance policy holders property that is turned over tot eh insurance agency in a loss final settlement. Insurance companies will sell the salvage property in hopes to recoup some of its monetary loss due to the loss and settlement.

Second Party – this is the actual insurance company in the auto insurance policy.

Surcharge – This is the amount added to your auto insurance policy premium after a traffic violation or an accident in which you were found to be at fault.

Third Party – This is another person other than the policy holder and auto insurance company who has faced a loss and may be able to collect and be compensated on behalf of the policy holder’s negligence.

Total Loss – This is complete destruction to the insured property of a policy holder. It has been determined that it would be a great sum of money to repair the item rather than replace the insured piece of property to its state prior to the loss.

Towing Coverage – This is the portion of the auto insurance policy that covers a specified amount for towing services and related labor costs.

Under insured Driver – This is the portion of an auto insurance policy which covers injuries to you caused by a driver without enough insurance to pay for the medical expenses you have incurred from the accident. This is portion of the policy can vary state by state as some states include damage to the car in this section.

Uninsured Driver or Motorist – This is the portion of the auto insurance policy which covers injuries to you caused by a driver who was without liability insurance at the time of the accident. Uninsured driver or motorist coverage comes in two different sections; uninsured motorist bodily injury and uninsured motorist property damage. Uninsured motorist bodily injury coverage covers the injuries to you or any passenger in your vehicle when there is an accident with an uninsured driver. Uninsured motorist property damage coverage covers the cost for the property damage to your vehicle when there is an accident with an identified uninsured driver. Uninsured driver or motorist coverage must be offered when you purchase the required liability coverage for your vehicle. You must sign a declination waiver if you decline Uninsured driver or motorist coverage. The majority of states require drivers to carry some form of uninsured motorist coverage. Some states include damages to your car in this coverage.

Vehicle Identification Number or VIN – A VIN is a 17 letter and number combination that is the identification of the specific vehicle. It will identify the make, modem and year of the automobile. This number is typically located on the driver’s side window on the dash. It can also be found on the vehicles registration and title.

21+ Useful Insurance Terms You Should Know

INSURED – A person or a corporation who contracts for an insurance policy that indemnifies (protects) him against loss or damage to property or, in the case of a liability policy, defend him against a claim from a third party.

NAMED INSURED – Any person, firm or corporation specifically designated by name as an insured(s) in a policy as distinguished from others who, though unnamed, are protected under some circumstances. For example, a common application of this latter principle is in auto liability policies wherein by a definition of “insured”, coverage is extended to other drivers using the car with the permission of the named insured. Other parties can also be afforded protection of an insurance policy by being named an “additional insured” in the policy or endorsement.

ADDITIONAL INSURED – An individual or entity that is not automatically included as an insured under the policy of another, but for whom the named insureds policy provides a certain degree of protection. An endorsement is typically required to effect additional insured status. The named insureds impetus for providing additional insured status to others may be a desire to protect the other party because of a close relationship with that party (e.g., employees or members of an insured club) or to comply with a contractual agreement requiring the named insured to do so (e.g., customers or owners of property leased by the named insured).

CO-INSURANCE – The sharing of one insurance policy or risk between two or more insurance companies. This usually entails each insurer paying directly to the insured their respective share of the loss. Co-insurance can also be the arrangement by which the insured, in consideration of a reduced rate, agrees to carry an amount of insurance equal to a percentage of the total value of the property insured. An example is if you have guaranteed to carry insurance up to 80% or 90% of the value of your building and/or contents, whatever the case may be. If you don’t, the company pays claims only in proportion to the amount of coverage you do carry.

The following equation is used to determine what amount may be collected for partial loss:

Amount of Insurance Carried x Loss

Amount of Insurance that = Payment

Should be Carried

Example A Mr. Right has an 80% co-insurance clause and the following situation:

$100,000 building value

$ 80,000 insurance carried

$ 10,000 building loss

By applying the equation for determining payment for partial loss, the following amount may be collected:

$80,000 x $10,000 = $10,000

$80,000

Mr. Right recovers the full amount of his loss because he carried the coverage specified in his co-insurance clause.

Example B Mr. Wrong has an 80% co-insurance clause and the following situation:

$100,000 building value

$ 70,000 insurance carried

$ 10,000 building loss

By applying the equation for determining payment for partial loss, the following amount may be collected:

$70,000 x $10,000 = $8,750

$80,000

Mr. Wrong’s loss of $10,000 is greater than the company’s limit of liability under his co-insurance clause. Therefore, Mr. Wrong becomes a self-insurer for the balance of the loss– $1,250.

PREMIUM – The amount of money paid by an insured to an insurer for insurance coverage.

DEDUCTIBLE – The first dollar amount of a loss for which the insured is responsible before benefits are paid by the insurer; similar to a self-insured retention (SIR). The insurer’s liability begins when the deductible is exhausted.

SELF INSURED RETENTION – Acts the same way as a deductible but the insured is responsible for all legal fees incurred in relation to the amount of the SIR.

POLICY LIMIT – The maximum monetary amount an insurance company is responsible for to the insured under its policy of insurance.

FIRST PARTY INSURANCE – Insurance that applies to coverage for an insureds own property or a person. Traditionally it covers damage to insureds property from whatever causes are covered in the policy. It is property insurance coverage. An example of first party insurance is BUILDERS RISK INSURANCE which is insurance against loss to the rigs or vessels in the course of their construction. It only involves the insurance company and the owner of the rig and/or the contractor who has a financial interest in the rig.

THIRD PARTY INSURANCE – Liability insurance covering the negligent acts of the insured against claims from a third party (i.e., not the insured or the insurance company – a third party to the insurance policy). An example of this insurance would be SHIP REPAIRER’S LEGAL LIABILITY (SRLL) – provides protection for contractors repairing or altering a customer’s vessel at their shipyard, other locations or at sea; also covers the insured while the customer’s property is under the “Care, Custody and Control” of the insured. A Commercial General Liability policy is needed for other coverages, such as slip-and-fall situations.

INSURABLE INTEREST – Any interest in something that is the subject of an insurance policy or any legal relationship to that subject that will trigger a certain event causing monetary loss to the insured. Example of insurable interest – ownership of a piece of property or an interest in that piece of property, e.g., a shipyard constructing a rig or vessel. (See BUILDERS RISK above)

LIABILITY INSURANCE – Insurance coverage that protects an insured against claims made by third parties for damage to their property or person. These losses usually come about as a result of negligence of the insured. In marine construction this policy is referred to an MGL, marine general liability policy. In non marine circumstances the policy is referred to as a CGL, commercial general liability policy. Insurance policies can be divided into two broad categories:

  • First party insurance covers the property of the person who purchases the insurance policy. For example, a home owner’s policy promising to pay for fire damage to the home owner’s home is a first party policy. Liability insurance, sometimes called third party insurance, covers the policy holder’s liability to other people. For example, a homeowners’ policy might cover liability if someone trips and falls on the home owner’s property. Sometimes one policy, such as in these examples, may have both first and third party coverage.
  • Liability insurance provides two separate benefits. First, the policy will cover the damage incurred by the third party. Sometimes this is called providing “indemnity” for the loss. Second, most liability policies provide a duty to defend. The duty to defend requires the insurance company to pay for lawyers, expert witnesses, and court costs to defend the third party’s claim. These costs can sometimes be substantial and should not be ignored when facing a liability claim.

UMBRELLA LIABILITY COVERAGE – This type of liability insurance provides excess liability protection. Your business needs this coverage for the following three reasons:

  • It provides excess coverage over the “underlying” liability insurance you carry.
  • It provides coverage for all other liability exposures, excepting a few specifically excluded exposures. This subject to a large deductible of about $10,000 to $25,000.
  • It provides automatic replacement coverage for underlying policies that have been reduced or exhausted by loss.

NEGLIGENCE – The failure to use reasonable care. The doing of something which a reasonably prudent person would not do, or the failure to do something which a reasonably prudent person would do under like circumstances. Negligence is a ‘legal cause’ of damage if it directly and in natural and continuous sequence produces or contributes substantially to producing such damage, so it can reasonably be said that if not for the negligence, the loss, injury or damage would not have occurred.

GROSS NEGLIGENCE – A carelessness and reckless disregard for the safety or lives of others, which is so great it appears to be almost a conscious violation of other people’s rights to safety. It is more than simple negligence, but it is just short of being willful misconduct. If gross negligence is found by the trier of fact (judge or jury), it can result in the award of punitive damages on top of general and special damages, in certain jurisdictions.

WILLFUL MISCONDUCT – An intentional action with knowledge of its potential to cause serious injury or with a reckless disregard for the consequences of such act.

PRODUCT LIABILITY – Liability which results when a product is negligently manufactured and sent into the stream of commence. A liability that arises from the failure of a manufacturer to properly manufacture, test or warn about a manufactured object.

MANUFACTURING DEFECTS – When the product departs from its intended design, even if all possible care was exercised.

DESIGN DEFECTS – When the foreseeable risks of harm posed by the product could have been reduced or avoided by the adoption of a reasonable alternative design, and failure to use the alternative design renders the product not reasonably safe.

INADEQUATE INSTRUCTIONS OR WARNINGS DEFECTS – When the foreseeable risks of harm posed by the product could have been reduced or avoided by reasonable instructions or warnings, and their omission renders the product not reasonably safe.

PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY INSURANCE – Liability insurance to indemnify professionals, (doctors, lawyers, architects, engineers, etc.,) for loss or expense which the insured professional shall become legally obliged to pay as damages arising out of any professional negligent act, error or omission in rendering or failing to render professional services by the insured. Same as malpractice insurance.

Professional Liability has expanded over the years to include those occupations in which special knowledge, skills and close client relationships are paramount. More and more occupations are considered professional occupations, as the trend in business continues to grow from a manufacturing-based economy to a service-oriented economy. Coupled with the litigious nature of our society, the companies and staff in the service economy are subject to greater exposure to malpractice claims than ever before.

ERRORS AND OMISSIONS – Same as malpractice or professional liability insurance.

HOLD HARMLESS AGREEMENT – A contractual arrangement whereby one party assumes the liability inherent in the situation, thereby relieving the other party of responsibility. For example, a lease of premises may provide that the lessee must “hold harmless” the lessor for any liability from accidents arising out of the premises.

INDEMNIFY – To restore the victim of a loss, in whole or in part, by payment, repair, or replacement.

INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS – Contract clauses that identify who is to be responsible if liabilities arise and often transfer one party’s liability for his or her wrongful acts to the other party.

WARRANTY – An agreement between a buyer and a seller of goods or services detailing the conditions under which the seller will make repairs or fix problems without cost to the buyer.

Warranties can be either expressed or implied. An EXPRESS WARRANTY is a guarantee made by the seller of the goods which expressly states one of the conditions attached to the sale e.g.,”This item is guaranteed against defects in construction for one year”.

An IMPLIED WARRANTY is usual in common law jurisdictions and attached to the sale of goods by operation of law made on behalf of the manufacturer. These warranties are not usually in writing. Common implied warranties are a warranty of fitness for use (implied by law that if a seller knows the particular purpose for which the item is purchased certain guarantees are implied) and a warranty of merchantability (a warranty implied by law that the goods are reasonably fit for the general purpose for which they are sold).

DAMAGES OR LOSS – The monetary consequence which results from injury to a thing or a person.

CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES – As opposed to direct loss or damage — is indirect loss or damage resulting from loss or damage caused by a covered peril, such as fire or windstorm. In the case of loss caused where windstorm is a covered peril, if a tree is blown down and cuts electricity used to power a freezer and the food in the freezer spoils, if the insurance policy extends coverage for consequential loss or damage then the food spoilage would be a covered loss. Business Interruption insurance, extends consequential loss or damage coverage for such items as extra expenses, rental value, profits and commissions, etc.

LIQUIDATED DAMAGES – Are a payment agreed to by the parties of a contract to satisfy portions of the agreement which were not performed. In some cases liquidated damages may be the forfeiture of a deposit or a down payment, or liquidated damages may be a percentage of the value of the contract, based on the percentage of work uncompleted. Liquidated damages are often paid in lieu of a lawsuit, although court action may be required in many cases where liquidated damages are sought. Liquidated damages, as opposed to a penalty, are sometimes paid when there is uncertainty as to the actual monetary loss involved. The payment of liquidated damages relieves the party in breech of a contract of the obligation to perform the balance of the contract.

SUBROGATION – “To stand in the place of” Usually found in property policies (first party) when an insurance company pays a loss to an insured or damaged to the insureds property, the insurer stands in the shoes of the insured and may pursue any third party who might be responsible for the loss. For example, if a defective component is sold to a manufacturer to be used in his product and that product is damaged due to the defective component. The insurance company who pays the loss to the manufacturer of the product may sue the manufacturer of the defective component.

Subrogation has a number of sub-principles namely:

  • The insurer cannot be subrogated to the insureds right of action until it has paid the insured and made good the loss.
  • The insurer can be subrogated only to actions which the insured would have brought himself.
  • The insured must not prejudice the insurer’s right of subrogation. Thus, the insured may not compromise or renounce any right of action he has against the third party if by doing so he could diminish the insurer’s right of recovery.
  • Subrogation against the insurer. Just as the insured cannot profit from his loss the insurer may not make a profit from the subrogation rights. The insurer is only entitled to recover the exact amount they paid as indemnity, and nothing more. If they recover more, the balance should be given to the insured.
  • Subrogation gives the insurer the right of salvage.